Anthurium is tropical ornamental plant and Anthurium cultivated for its colourful, long-lasting flowers or the attractive foliage. They have Gained importance as major cut flowers of the modern world.
Anthurium is a native of Central and South America and the genus Anthurium, with over 700 species.
The word anthurium is taken from the Greek ‘anthos’, flower and ‘aura’ tail, referring to the spadix.
The major countries importing anthurium cut flowers are in the USA. Canada. Germany. Europe and Japan.
The popularity of growing anthurium as cut flowers has risen tremendously in the past few years and it has now become an important export-oriented crop.
In India, Anthurium industry is still in its starting phage. There are very a few growers from Karnataka, Tamil Nadu Kerala Andhra Pradesh North -Eastern states who send their flower to big cities like Mumbai and Delhi.
Anthurium requires Greenhouse with shading for protecting from direct sunlight and maintain humid condition. Bright, but a filtered light is essential for abundant flowering.
Anthurium is a tropical plant hence humid and Moderate temperature condition is suitable for anthurium plant.
The ideal temperature for growing anthurium is ranging from 27 – 30°C in the daytime and 10 – 20°C at night time. avoid Anthurium cultivation where temperatures are lower than 15°C and above 35°C
Anthuriums are not grown in open tropical region hence For Anthurium cultivation in a tropical climate, shade nets with 75% shading are used.
Anthurium plants require a growing medium in good physical and chemical conditions for its proper growth and development.
Highly organic, well-aerated growing media with good water retention capacity is suitable for anthurium cultivation.
Selection of good growing media is directly correlated with successful growing and production of export quality flowers in anthurium.
In India, coconut husk is the primary growing media use for anthurium cultivation this coconut coir pith must well-decomposed and washed thoroughly with good quality water to remove the soluble salts.
Then equal proportions of coir pith and coconut husk were used as growing media after washing in fungicide (Bavistin 0.2%) and insecticide (Chloropyriphos 0.3%).
Greenhouse structure required for commercial anthurium cultivation
For commercial purpose, anthurium cultivated in the greenhouse. The greenhouse/ polyhouse required is naturally ventilated type.
Foggers are fixed inside the greenhouse to control the humidity. Shade nets of 50%-75% are used to regulate the shade.
The temperature and humidity under the greenhouse were maintained throughout at about 20-28 °C and 70-85 percent RH respectively.
There are many varieties of anthurium with different colours like dark red, orange, white, pink and bicolour (Two colours).
The preference for colour in global as well as local markets for anthurium flowers indicates that the red coloured varieties are the most favored with 45 percent share among the varieties sold.
In India. Some of the varieties viz., Ivory (White), Chichas (Maroon) Aymara (Pink) and Jewel (Red with green), Tropical Red, Mauritius Red, Red Dragon, Verdun Red, Acropolis ( white), Mauritius White, Manoa Mist( white)
Preparation of bed
The bed consists of plastic foil (0.1cm thick), with a drainage tube for removing excess water at the lowest point.
The side of the bed consisted of a strong polystyrene sheet and a wire on posts covered with plastic sheet used to create the bed shape.
The bed has the width of 1.20 meter and length of 26 meters. Path width of 0.8 meters was maintained.
Plastic is used to separate the substrate from underground. The bottom of the bed was sloped from the side to the middle of the bed (2-3 cm) so that the drain water flows to the drainage hose.
A growing medium of coconut husk and coco peat were maintained at the thickness of 20-30 cm which was disinfected by fungicides and pesticides and It is refilled after every two to three years of interval.
- No of bed per acre – 60-65
- The ideal length of the bed – 80-125 ft
- The ideal width of the bed – 4 Ft
The beds were irrigated two days before planting. When transplanting anthurium plant maintain distance 30cm x 25 cm by making small holes of about 5-6 cm depth and width at each spot of planting.
Plants were inserted in the holes carefully so that the roots of a plant should not touch the ground then, a handful of coir pith was put to avoid contact with the ground plastic cover.
Dead and diseased plants were discarded. Plants were sprinkled with water immediately after planting and planting was done during evening time.
The method of irrigation practiced was sprinkler irrigation through which fertilizers were also given and the water used for irrigation must be 0.5 electrical conductivity above 1 electrical conductivity is not suitable for irrigation purpose.
In each bed, two lines of sprinkler were maintained so that water reaches each and every plant very easily.
The plants are watered twice daily during summer and once in rainy depending on environmental conditions. Even water was sprinkled twice a day over the paths in-between the beds to maintain the humidity.
The major nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium were supplied in the form of complex fertilizer grade 19:19:19.
Entire dosage (3:1:1) @ 2g/lit, twice a week during vegetative period and 1:2:2 NPK mixture @ 2-3g /lit, twice a week were applied during the flowering period.
Calcium nitrate and magnesium nitrate were also supplied through fertigation.
Before entry of the greenhouse, make a small cementing structure for foot dip and add KMnO4 solution with water so that the hygienic condition of plants and greenhouse are maintaining.
Once every three years, change the cladding material and shade while changing take care no sharp and pointed objects should come in contact with polyethylene cover so that no damage to the structure.
The door of the greenhouse was always close so that temperature and relative humidity are maintained.
Temperature and Relative Humidity management
The temperature and relative humidity maintained under greenhouse are 20-28°C and 60-80% respectively With the help of fogger and shade net.
also, water is sprinkled twice a day over the paths in-between the beds to maintain the humidity.
Hand weeding is required when weeds observe and it is helpful to avoid the competition with the crop.
Pruning of leaves:
Pruning of leaves was one of the important operations as too many leaves often lead to crooked stems and damaged flower buds.
The old and diseased leaves were pruned regularly and only 3-5 leaves were maintained on the plant to get good quality flowers.
Plant protection measures:
To prevent and control pest and diseases the plant protection measures were taken as and when noticed with appropriate chemicals.
Harvesting and Grading –
The flowers were harvested after unfolding of the spathe was complete. They were harvested in the morning and were cut with anthurium long stalks.
The best time for harvest was when 1/3 to 2/3 of the true flowers on the spadix were open. The flowers were cut with a sharp knife, leaving 3 cm of stem on the plants to prevent rotting of the stem.
also, anthurium flower is withstanding for 20 days without damaging quality so according to market need it harvested.
flowers having any sort of blemishes, black spots, discoloured spathe, short stalk as well as deformed flowers were removed before grading.
The flowers of spotlessly clean and shining were used these Flowers were graded into five classes depending on their flower size in the Caribbean and Hawaii market standards.
The anthurium cut flower grades were as follows:
Grade Flower size (inch)
- Peewee <2.5
- Mini- 2.5-3
- Small – 3-4
- Medium- 4-5
- Large- 5-5.5
- Extra large- 5.5-6
- Premium >6
After harvest, the basal portion of the stalk of the flower was kept in water to prevent drying out and Flowers were cleaned with shampoo in clean water to remove the adhering particles of dust, pesticides or fungicides for shining effect.
The care was taken while transporting flowers by placing a piece of cotton soaked in water at the end of the stem to
Anthurium cultivation Economic
|Area of Polyhouse –
|Polyhouse Construction –
Polyhous as per NHB norms,
GI pipe structure & imported
plastic @ Rs 825 / per Sq. mtr.
|Irrigation System –
Drip Irrigation system for plants
Fertigation unit, Water
|Bed Preparation –
Table stand with Wire ropes and
Total No. of Plants:
Cost per Plant:
|cost of cultivation per year|
|Electricity – 3.0 unit/day||50,000|
|Water requirement –
Approximate per year
Water Soluble Fertilizers
3- 4 labours per day
|Returns Per Year|
|Yield / Plant / Year- 6 flower||120,000|
1Year: 3 Flower/year
2-5 Year: 7 Flower/year
6- 7 Year: 5 Flower/year
|Price per flower –
|Total Returns – Per Year||1,800,000|
|Cost of Cultivation -Per Year||1,092,660|
|Net Return-Per Year||707,340|
Disclaimer: (The above calculations are indicative only.)
Anthurium is the best-cut flower for export, because of leafless stem and good vase life. If cultivated scientifically, this crop can earn valuable foreign exchange to our country.