Technology

Greenhouse Farming in India (beginner guide 2018)

greenhouse farming

Nowadays many farmers are shifting farming to other professions due to insufficient financial protection. Climatic change is a significant challenge for the farmer. More than 95% farmer uses the traditional farming technique in India. If we wanted to earn more profit from agriculture, we have to adopt modern farming techniques such as greenhouse farming ( polyhouse farming), hydroponic farming.

In India, we import many fruits, vegetables, and flower from other countries and pay them very good money. If we grow this flower vegetable & fruit in our country with the help of modern techniques, we can earn an outstanding amount of money, so I say this modern technique like greenhouse farming will improve the living standard of our Indian farmer.

Introduction of Greenhouse:

Before start greenhouse farming lets clear some concept

what is Greenhouse?

A Greenhouse is a framed structure covered with transparent material and large enough to grow crops under partial or fully controlled environmental conditions to get optimum growth and productivity.

Greenhouse Technology is the technique of providing favorable environment condition to the plants.

Of all agricultural production activities, the greenhouse industry is worldwide the fastest growing sector. The greenhouse is goldmines that offer the most profitable business opportunities.

The use of the greenhouse is mainly for the production of seasonal and non- seasonal crops, for the production of high-quality flower, vegetable and the preparation of nursery prepared by tissue culture.

Greenhouses offer many advantages

Advantages of Greenhouse:

  • The yield may be 10-12 times higher than that of outdoor cultivation depending upon the type of greenhouse, type of crop, environmental control facilities.
  • Reliability of crop increases under greenhouse cultivation.
  • Ideally suited for vegetables and flower crops.
  • Year round production of floricultural crops.
  • Off-season production of vegetable and fruit crops.
  • Disease-free and genetically superior transplants can be produced continuously.
  • Efficient utilization of chemicals, pesticides to control pest and diseases.
  • Water requirement of crops very limited and easy to control

How to start greenhouse farming?

To start greenhouse farming is required heavy expenditure on infrastructure, equipment, labor, a raw material also greenhouse farmer must have technical, economical & marketing knowledge hence you must finish practical training program.

In India, there is various government & NGO organization provide, Greenhouse farming ( polyhouse Farming)  training. However, HTC is pioneer institute provide a Five-day greenhouse farming training programme.

To start greenhouse farming follow this step.

how to start greenhouse farming

1) Overview Of Greenhouse

Difference between polyhouse and greenhouse?
There is no such difference between polyhouse and greenhouse. The greenhouse is the broad term, Polyhouse is among the kinds of Greenhouse in which polyethylene is used as the main material for construction. The durability of the polyhouse is more compared to other types of Greenhouse.

Let ‘s understand which are the different type of greenhouse –

I ) Types of  Greenhouse:

There are different types of greenhouses available based on shape, construction, material, and ventilation. Each greenhouse has own advantage. Different types of a greenhouse are designed to match the specific needs.

generally, in India sawtooth Natural Vent Greenhouse is used for cut flower, vegetable production purpose

A) Greenhouse type based on Shape

  1. Sawtooth type Greenhouse
  2. Ridge and furrow type greenhouse
  3. Uneven span type greenhouse
  4. Even span type greenhouse.
  5. Sawtooth type.
  6. Quonset greenhouse.
  7.  Interlocking ridges greenhouse.
  8. Ground to ground greenhouse

B) Greenhouse type based on construction

  1. Wooden framed structures
  2. Pipe framed structures

C) Greenhouse type based on covering materials

  1. Glass greenhouse
  2. plastic greenhouse

D) Greenhouse type based on ventilation 

1. Natural Vent Greenhouse

This type of greenhouse is based on natural ventilation and depending on the crops the temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide gas can be maintained as per the requirement.

In this Greenhouse, plastic nets are used to prevent insect and bacterial access.

This type greenhouse used for the production of cut flower like Gerbera, Dutch roseCarnation, Lily  & Vegetable like Colour capsicum, Tomato, Cucumber, Exotic vegetables.

2. Climate control Greenhouse:

In such a greenhouse, temperature and humidity are controlled by using micro-irrigation techniques. The in this type greenhouse internal environment is fully managed. This type of greenhouse mostly uses for Hi-tech Nursery.

II) Point to consider before Selecting Greenhouse site

Before deciding to start greenhouse farming, you have to consider following point to become successful in greenhouse farming

  1. Soil PH Should be between  5.5 to 6.5 and EC (Volatility) 0.3 to 0.5 mm cm/cm
  2. Good water quality is continuously available.
  3. The irrigation water samples should be range from  PH 5.5 to 7.0 and E.C. 0.1 to 0.3
  4. The selected place should be pollution-free.
  5.  There should be roads for transportation and shipping of goods in the market.
  6. The place should be large enough for the upcoming expansion.
  7.  Workers should be available easily and cheap.
  8. There should be excellent communication facilities in place.
  9. The drainage of the soil should be excellent.

III) Which Crop Suitable for Greenhouse Farming

To star Greenhouse farming required high investment hence though the crop is having high commercial value & sustainable market demand this crop cultivated in the Greenhouse.
Floriculture crop like all cut flower  & vegetable is mostly grown in the greenhouse.

Which are the top profitable crop in the greenhouse? The profitability of greenhouse each crop depends upon the various factors such as market, climatic condition, labour, raw material availability.

List of Most Popular Floriculture and vegetable crop  Grow in a Greenhouse.

Top profitable crop grow in greenhouse

Floriculture Vegetable & Fruit
Gerbera Colour Capsicum
Dutch Rose cucumber
Carnations tomato
Anthurium exotic vegetable
Lily Strawberry
Orchids
Gypsophila
Limonium
Alstroemeria

2) Apply For  Bank Loan

The initial investment for greenhouse farming is enormous. To start Greenhouse farming cost per acre is come to approximately  45 Lac- 60 Lac.

Many banks are interested in providing Horticulture loans to farmers.

To get a loan for the greenhouse, you have to Create Greenhouse farming project report with the help of the chartered accountant or any agency and present to the bank for loan officer also this project report is useful for an apply subsidy for the greenhouse.

Steps for creating a project report

  1. Introduction about Greenhouse farmer
  2. The need of Greenhouse project
  3. Technical analysis
  4. Economical analysis

Also, the following document needed for the bank loan.

  1. Detailed Project Report
  2. 7/12 of land

Bank provide  Loan with 12%-14%  interest, for the 5-7 year period and mostly many bank offer  EMI (equated monthly installment) option quarterly or every six months.

For the subsidy, purpose takes the loan from nationals bank, district bank and this is precondition government stated in subsidy norm

List Of the Bank Providing Horticulture Loan

  1. State Bank Of India
  2. Bank of Baroda
  3. Bank of India
  4. Maharashtra Bank
  5. IDBI Bank

3) Apply for Greenhouse Subsidy

Our  Indian government is promoting greenhouse farming they offered a subsidy for greenhouse farming.

The government gives subsidy from 50%-60% to the project cost of the greenhouse. Subsidy percentage varies with the state to state. For subsidy-related information read guideline  NHM & NHB website or contact the nearest government agriculture office they guide you.

before applying subsidy following document required

  1. Detailed Project Report
  2. Certified Copy of record of rights over the piece of project-land  ( 7/12 of land)
  3.  loan sanctioned letter issued by the bank with complete terms & condition

For NHB you can apply online here  click

National Horticulture Board subsidy norm

greenhouse subsidy norm
source: NHB

National Horticulture Mission subsidy norm

National Horticulture Mission subisdy norm
Source: NHM

 4) Place an order Greenhouse construction company.

Polyhouse construction

After government approves Letter of Intent (LOI)  for subsidy & passing bank loan Next step is to Start greenhouse construction there are many greenhouse construction companies available in market contact them and check past company project ( work quality) & negotiated for greenhouse construction rate.

Required Cost to set a Polyhouse 

To establish a Polyhouse (greenhouse), it costs around Rs.700 to Rs.1000 per square meter. The cost depends on some factors like quality of the material quality, size, shape, transport, and structure.

List of a reputed Greenhouse construction company.

  1. Indian Greenhouse
  2. Govind Greenhouse
  3. Shrihari Polyhouse
  4. Waman Enterprises

 5) Plant Booking/ Ordering

hitech nursery
source: Rise n’ Shine

To produce a good quality flower and vegetable plant quality must superior quality and free from any disease.

In India, there are very few nurseries who are providing the excellent quality plant for the greenhouse so place booking order before setup plastic cover on the greenhouse to avoid delay in the plantation.

before plant booking following point should be considered

  1. which variety has market demand
  2. variety production yield performance
  3. which variety suitable for our climate

You can collect this information form nursery representative also form another greenhouse owner also remember plant nursery company not only sell plant they entirely give plant cultivation guidance so don’t hesitate any plant related query.

List Of Hi-tech Nursery Company

 6) Safe Work Practices

Every crop has different cultivation and management procedure. Plant nursery company provide detail guidelines for fertilization schedule,  pest & disease control management.

also, you can find a cultivation guide here  gerbera cultivation guide, dutch rose cultivation guide, carnation cultivation and capsicum cultivation

The Key to become a successful greenhouse farmer is “Evey day close monitoring crop”  it is helpful for understanding any pest, disease attack on the crop at an early stage also it helps to understand nutrients deficiency in the plant.

7) Marketing:

gerbera greenhouse farming

Export quality product produces in the greenhouse as per market specification create packaging and market them with own marketing or with the help of an agent or broker.

For cut flower & vegetable the major market is in a metro city like Hyderabad, Mumbai, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Kolkata, Pune, Banglore.

Most of the greenhouse grower market their product with the help of broker/agent. For cut flower agent work on 10% commission.

List Of Major Flower Agent/ Broker

  1. BABA FLOWER, Hyderabad
    Contact No: 09849078633
  2. NIZAM-FLOWER  Hyderabad
    Contact No: 9866346807
  3. THAKUR FLOWERS: Shop No.15/16, Vijay Nagar Building, Tulsi Pipe Road, Dadar West, Mumbai – 400028
    contact No: 02224309897, 8450990650
  4. NIKHIL BHOITE
    Old Flower Market, Bhuleshwar, Mumbai- 400002(Mah.) INDIA.
    Tel : 91-22-22423373, 22428266.
  5. VIVEK FLORA
    Shop No. 1, Upendra Nagar, Old Phool Market, S.B Marg.,
    Dadar (W), Mumbai – 400 028
    Tel : +91-22-24329648/ 65936195
  6. ROSARY WORLD
    House No.437/3a, Divison No.3 Benjamin Road, Near CMC Hospital.
    Ludhiana Punjab 141008
    Tel : 0161-2729186.
  7. VARLAK AGRO-TECH PVT. LTD.
    Sy. No. 13, Village Navarathna Agrahara, Sadahalli Post, Devanhalli Road
    Bangalore Karnataka 562110
    Phone : 08032719559

About the author

amar sawant

12 Comments

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  • Please guide us as what is marketing viability in western Rajasthan, jodhpur precisely and what all can be grown in a green

  • Hello….sir,
    I Jaimin Patel From Kheda ( Gujarat)
    Sir Apka Koi plant gujarat hato maje address send karana …plz …kuki ki maje as Small plant devlop karna hee kheda me ….otherwise what up guide karna …..plzzz …sir ….my whatup number 8866873542.

  • Sir thanks for the useful information. Do u have any branch in Tamilnadu? Any contact number to clear all my doubts?

  • Amar ji,

    I have around 30 Acres Arid land near Nagpur . what crop would you suggest for the same as you would know that it is very hot in summers in that area

    • Thanks,
      I think Nagpur has very hot climate & water availability also low in summer. your land area also very big try 2-3 crop
      my suggestion try dragon fruit farming

  • Hello sir
    I wanted to start greenhouse I completed bank lone & LOI bet I am confused which are the top greenhouse company please tell which is the best greenhouse company

  • Dear sir
    I am gerbera grower I wanted to start my next greenhouse last time greenhouse construction company give my lot & lost trouble please recommend me which are the top greenhouse manufacturing company in India

  • Sir,

    I want to start greenhouse in bharuch gujarat. Can u pls provide reference to visit and review nearby greenhouse business