Greenhouse Farming in India (beginner guide 2018)

greenhouse farming

Nowadays many farmers are shifting farming to other professions due to insufficient financial protection. Climatic change is a significant challenge for the farmer. More than 95% farmer uses the traditional farming technique in India. If we wanted to earn more profit from agriculture, we have to adopt modern farming techniques such as Greenhouse farming ( polyhouse farming), hydroponic farming.

In India, we import many fruits, vegetables, and flower from other countries and pay them very good money. If we grow this flower vegetable & fruit in our country with the help of modern techniques, we can earn an outstanding amount of money, so I say this modern technique like greenhouse farming will improve the living standard of our Indian farmer.

Introduction of Greenhouse:

Before start Greenhouse farming lets clear some concept…

What is Greenhouse?

A Greenhouse is a framed structure covered with transparent material and large enough to grow crops under partial or fully controlled environmental conditions to get optimum growth and productivity.

Greenhouse Technology is the technique of providing favourable environment condition to the plants.

Of all agricultural production activities, the greenhouse industry is worldwide the fastest growing sector. The greenhouse is goldmines that offer the most profitable business opportunities.

The use of the greenhouse is mainly for the production of seasonal and non- seasonal crops, for the production of high-quality flower, vegetable and the preparation of nursery prepared by tissue culture.

Greenhouses offer many advantages

Advantages of Greenhouse:

  • The yield may be 10-12 times higher than that of outdoor cultivation depending upon the type of greenhouse, type of crop, environmental control facilities.
  • Reliability of crop increases under greenhouse cultivation.
  • Ideally suited for vegetables and flower crops.
  • Year round production of floricultural crops.
  • Off-season production of vegetable and fruit crops.
  • Disease-free and genetically superior transplants can be produced continuously.
  • Efficient utilization of chemicals, pesticides to control pest and diseases.
  • Water requirement of crops very limited and easy to control

How to start greenhouse farming?

To start greenhouse farming is required heavy expenditure on infrastructure, equipment, labour, a raw material also greenhouse farmer must have technical, economical & marketing knowledge, hence you must finish a practical training program.

In India, there is various government & NGO organization provide, Greenhouse farming ( polyhouse Farming)  training. However, HTC is a pioneer institute provide a Five-day greenhouse farming training programme.

To start greenhouse farming follow this step.

how to start greenhouse farming

1) Overview Of Greenhouse

What is the difference between greenhouse and Polyhouse?

There is no such difference between polyhouse and greenhouse. The greenhouse is the broad term, Polyhouse is among the kinds of Greenhouse in which polyethylene is used as the main material for construction.

The durability of the polyhouse is more compared to other types of Greenhouse.

Let ‘s understand which are the different type of greenhouse –

I ) Types of  Greenhouse:

There are different types of greenhouses available based on shape, construction, material, and ventilation. Each greenhouse has own advantage. Different types of the greenhouse are designed to according to match specific needs.

Generally, in India sawtooth Natural ventilated greenhouse is used for cut flower, vegetable production purpose.

A) Greenhouse type based on Shape

  1. Sawtooth type Greenhouse
  2. Ridge and furrow type greenhouse
  3. Uneven span type greenhouse
  4. Even span type greenhouse.
  5. Sawtooth type.
  6. Quonset greenhouse.
  7.  Interlocking ridges greenhouse.
  8. Ground to ground greenhouse

B) Greenhouse type based on construction

  1. Wooden framed structures – It is low cost greenhouse for Vegetable Production.
  2. Pipe framed structures

C) Greenhouse type based on covering materials

  1. Glass greenhouse
  2. plastic greenhouse

D) Greenhouse type based on ventilation 

1. Natural Vent Greenhouse

This type of greenhouse is based on natural ventilation and depending on the crops the temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide gas can be maintained as per the requirement.

In this Greenhouse, shade nets are used to prevent insect and bacterial access also for control inside temperature.

This type greenhouse used for the production of cut flower like Gerbera, Dutch roseCarnation, Lily  & Vegetable like Colour capsicum, Tomato, Cucumber, Exotic vegetables.

2. Climate control Greenhouse:

In such a greenhouse, temperature and humidity are controlled by using micro-irrigation techniques. In this type greenhouse, internal environment is fully managed.

This type of greenhouse mostly uses for Hi-tech Nursery.

II) Point to consider before Selecting Greenhouse site

Before deciding to start greenhouse farming, you have to consider the following point to become successful in greenhouse farming

  1. Soil PH Should be between  5.5 to 6.5 and EC (Volatility) 0.3 to 0.5 mm cm/cm
  2. Good water quality is continuously available.
  3. The irrigation water samples should be range from  PH 5.5 to 7.0 and E.C. 0.1 to 0.3
  4. The selected place should be pollution-free.
  5.  There should be roads for transportation and shipping of goods in the market.
  6. The place should be large enough for the upcoming expansion.
  7.  Workers should be available easily and cheap.
  8. There should be excellent communication facilities in place.
  9. The drainage of the soil should be excellent.

III) Which Crop Suitable for Greenhouse Farming

To star Greenhouse farming required high investment hence though the crop is having high commercial value & sustainable market demand this crop cultivated in the Greenhouse.

Floriculture crop like all cut flower  & vegetable is mostly grown in the greenhouse.

What are the most profitable crops to grow in a greenhouse?

The profitability of greenhouse crop depends upon the various factors such as market, climatic condition, labour, raw material availability.

List of Most Popular Floriculture and vegetable growing crop in a Greenhouse.

Top profitable crop grow in greenhouse

Floriculture Vegetable & Fruit
Gerbera Colour Capsicum
Dutch Rose cucumber
Carnations tomato
Anthurium exotic vegetable
Lily Strawberry

2) Apply For  Bank Loan

The initial investment in greenhouse farming is enormous. To start Greenhouse farming cost come approximately is 40 Lac- 60 Lac ( greenhouse cost per acre )

Many banks are interested in providing Horticulture loans to farmers.

To get a loan for the greenhouse, you have to Create Greenhouse farming project report with the help of the chartered accountant or any agency and present to the bank for loan officer also this project report is useful for an apply subsidy for the greenhouse.

Steps for creating a project report

  1. Introduction about Greenhouse farmer
  2. The need of Greenhouse project
  3. Technical analysis
  4. Economical analysis

Download Greenhouse Farming project report pdf

List of documents required  in the bank 

  1. Detailed Project Report
  2. 8 “A” land Report
  3. 7/12 of land Report
  4. Estimate of polyhouse
  5. Blueprint of polyhouse
  6. Estimate of plants
  7. Estimate of Irrigation
  8. Soil and water analysis report
  9. Buyer’s letter

Bank provide Loan with 12% – 14%  interest, for the 5-7 year period and mostly many bank offer  EMI (equated monthly installment) option quarterly or every six months.

For the subsidy, purpose takes the loan from nationals bank, district bank and this is precondition government stated in subsidy norm.

List Of the Bank Providing Horticulture Loan

  1. State Bank Of India
  2. Bank of Baroda
  3. Bank of India
  4. Maharashtra Bank
  5. IDBI Bank

3) Apply for Greenhouse Subsidy

Our Indian government is promoting greenhouse farming they offered a subsidy for greenhouse farming through the horticulture department.

The government gives subsidy from 50%-60% to the project cost of the greenhouse. Subsidy percentage varies with the state to state.

For subsidy-related information read guideline  NHM & NHB website or contact the nearest government agriculture office they guide you.

Before applying subsidy following document required

  1. Detailed Project Report
  2. Certified Copy of record of rights over the piece of project-land  ( 7/12 of land)
  3.  loan sanctioned letter issued by the bank with complete terms & condition

For NHB you can apply online here  click

National Horticulture Board subsidy norm

greenhouse subsidy norm
source: NHB

National Horticulture Mission subsidy norm

National Horticulture Mission subisdy norm
Source: NHM

 4) Place an order Greenhouse construction company.

Polyhouse construction

After government approves Letter of Intent (LOI)  for subsidy & passing bank loan Next step is to Start greenhouse construction there are many greenhouse construction companies available in market contact them and check past company project ( work quality) & negotiated for greenhouse construction rate.

Required Cost to set a Polyhouse 

Greenhouse construction cost (Polyhouse) is around Rs.700 to Rs.1000 per square meter. The cost depends on some factors like quality of the material, size, shape, transport, and structure.

List of a reputed Greenhouse construction company.

  1. Indian Greenhouse
  2. Govind Greenhouse
  3. Shrihari Polyhouse
  4. Waman Enterprises

 5) Plant Booking/ Ordering

hitech nursery
source: Rise n’ Shine

To produce a good quality flower and vegetable plant quality must superior quality and free from any disease.

In India, there are very few nurseries who are providing the excellent quality plant for the greenhouse so place booking order before setup plastic cover on the greenhouse to avoid delay in the plantation.

before plant booking following point should be considered

  1. which variety has high  market demand
  2. variety yield performance report
  3. which variety suitable for our climate
  4. disease and pest report

You can collect this information form nursery representative or form another greenhouse owner also remember plant nursery company not only sell plant they entirely give plant cultivation guidance so don’t hesitate any plant related query.

List Of Hi-tech Nursery Company

 6) Safe Work Practices

Every growing plant has a different cultivation and management procedure. Plant nursery company provide detail guidelines for fertilization schedule, pest & disease control management procedure.

You can find greenhouse crop cultivation guide here gerbera cultivation guide, dutch rose cultivation guide, carnation cultivation, and capsicum cultivation

The Key to become a successful greenhouse farmer is “Evey day close monitoring crop”  it is helpful for understanding any pest, disease attack on the crop at an early stage. also it helps to understand nutrients deficiency in the plant.

There are some important tools must be required for every greenhouse farmer

  • EC-PH Meter – This meter is helpful for soil and water analysis it is important to decide fertilizer dose combination.  Buy –  EC-PH Meter
  •  Hygrometer -Thermometer – This device show humidity and a temperature inside the greenhouse.        Buy – Hygrometer -Thermometer
  • Weighing Scale  – This device is useful to measure the required quantity of fertilizer for per dose
    Buy – Weighing Scale


7) Marketing:

gerbera greenhouse farming

Export quality product produces in the greenhouse as per market specification create packaging and market them with own marketing or with the help of an agent or broker.

For cut flower and vegetable the major market is in a metro city like Hyderabad, Mumbai, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Kolkata, Pune, Banglore.

Most of the greenhouse grower market their product with the help of broker/agent. For cut flower agent work on 10% commission.

List Of Major Flower Agent/ Broker

  1. BABA FLOWER, Hyderabad
    Contact No: 09849078633
  2. NIZAM-FLOWER  Hyderabad
    Contact No: 9866346807
  3. THAKUR FLOWERS: Shop No.15/16, Vijay Nagar Building, Tulsi Pipe Road, Dadar West, Mumbai – 400028
    contact No: 02224309897, 8450990650
    Old Flower Market, Bhuleshwar, Mumbai- 400002(Mah.) INDIA.
    Tel : 91-22-22423373, 22428266.
    Shop No. 1, Upendra Nagar, Old Phool Market, S.B Marg.,
    Dadar (W), Mumbai – 400 028
    Tel : +91-22-24329648/ 65936195
    House No.437/3a, Divison No.3 Benjamin Road, Near CMC Hospital.
    Ludhiana Punjab 141008
    Tel : 0161-2729186.
    Sy. No. 13, Village Navarathna Agrahara, Sadahalli Post, Devanhalli Road
    Bangalore Karnataka 562110
    Phone : 08032719559

About the author

amar sawant

amar sawant


Click here to post a comment

  • Please guide us as what is marketing viability in western Rajasthan, jodhpur precisely and what all can be grown in a green

  • Hello….sir,
    I Jaimin Patel From Kheda ( Gujarat)
    Sir Apka Koi plant gujarat hato maje address send karana …plz …kuki ki maje as Small plant devlop karna hee kheda me ….otherwise what up guide karna …..plzzz …sir ….my whatup number 8866873542.

  • Sir thanks for the useful information. Do u have any branch in Tamilnadu? Any contact number to clear all my doubts?

  • Amar ji,

    I have around 30 Acres Arid land near Nagpur . what crop would you suggest for the same as you would know that it is very hot in summers in that area

    • Thanks,
      I think Nagpur has very hot climate & water availability also low in summer. your land area also very big try 2-3 crop
      my suggestion try dragon fruit farming

  • Hello sir
    I wanted to start greenhouse I completed bank lone & LOI bet I am confused which are the top greenhouse company please tell which is the best greenhouse company

  • Dear sir
    I am gerbera grower I wanted to start my next greenhouse last time greenhouse construction company give my lot & lost trouble please recommend me which are the top greenhouse manufacturing company in India

  • Sir,

    I want to start greenhouse in bharuch gujarat. Can u pls provide reference to visit and review nearby greenhouse business

  • Sir,

    Could you provide me details of any personal available as consultant in and around region of Hubli, Gadag, Belgaum in Karnataka..who could educate me in planning of farms..our family owns around 50 acres of agriculture land in Gadag district..and with varied water availability and soil conditions.you can forward details on
    [email protected]

    • Hey Hitesh
      please tell me what you wanted to cultivate. please tell 3-4 crop as an option than I will suggest best crop fit in your area.

  • hello sir,
    for green house farming , do we require agricultural land or it can be done on any piece of land ?
    and open aired land is a must or one can use covered land as well ?

    • Hey Rupesh

      for greenhouse aired land also suitable, but there are certain parameter before constructing greenhouse pleases read Point to consider before Selecting Greenhouse site

  • Hello,
    I am looking for marketing agent or companies for Delhi or nearby .
    Please guide because I am planning for green house in a small town but the major problem is to find out a market

  • Dear Amar,
    I have about 10acres of land near shimoga karnataka with good water resources currently we plant maize, rice and ginger. I want to start a polyhouse can you please suggest what crop should I go in for and how big the polyhouse can be.

  • I would like to take formal training on greenhouse and polyhouse farming. I’m from Mumbai. Please let me know where I can take a proper training.

    • Hi Himanshu

      you can get training form HTC this is pioneer institute provide a Five-day greenhouse farming training programme. This institute located in pune

      • Thank you Amar. This article is really useful. I’m planning to start my greenhouse in the next few months. Where can I find details about government subsidy in Maharashtra?

  • Dear Amar

    I am looking at starting a project near Dehradun. Have around 5-6 acres of land there. Please suggest in he products best suited for the region from marketing and growth point of view.

    • Hey Ashish

      we need more information about your interest, marketing channel and labor so join our consultancy program our team assists you, to join our consultancy program contact us – [email protected]

  • Hello sir,
    My name is Bhavik Bhatti from Ahmedabad.I want to know that, how many parameters to be consedered while growing potatos in green house?

    • Hello Bhavik

      I think potatoes cultivation in the greenhouse is not a good option as a commercial point of view. but if you wanted to do the experiment lets try and share a result with us.

  • Hi Amar ji,

    Myself Rohini from south Guj. We would like setup greenhouse in 1acre. Can we split the greenhouse in 2 parts and grow Gerbera and Color Capsicum in half acres each? Do you recommend any other crop for this area?

    • Hi Rohini
      you can grow gerbera and capsicum in a different greenhouse but you don’t grow both crops in a single greenhouse

  • Hello Mr Sawant,
    Many thanks for sharing so useful information. Really appreciate it.
    I am from Nagpur and plan to start Polyhouse farming in Nagpur. The soil is black fertile soil. Recently I contacted M/S GREEN AGROTECH from Chattisgarh. He gave me a project estimate and said he will help in applying for govt subsidy. He said, once I get subsidy, then he will start construction work which would complete by 1-1.5 months. But, I am worried, within what time frame the government releases the subsidy amount? Is the bank loan compulsory for getting the subsidy? It will be of great help if you can explain the process of payment part to the green house company in a bit more detail?
    Thank you.

    • Hello Arjun
      Before actually start greenhouse construction work you have to apply the letter of intent for subsidy purpose simultaneously apply for a loan for any nationalised banks, district bank ( don’t apply private sector bank) when you got LOI then start greenhouse construction work. The government gives a 3-month time frame, but if your greenhouse works not complete in 3 months tell them the reason behind late work to government agriculture officer reason there is not worry about time frame but not more than 6 months.

      for every greenhouse construction company has different payment rule but generally for foundation work you have to pay 10% after main greenhouse construction start 70%- 80% then after all greenhouse construction work complete pay reaming amount

      • Hello Amar,
        Thanks for replying to me. So what is minimum size of land required for polyhouse? What is initially investment required for aquafarming?

        • To start polyhouse you must have at list 6-7 Gunta ( 608-708 sq.meter), 5 Guntha for polyhouse and other for storeroom ( pump, water tank, HTP pump…etc)

  • wonderful information … i am from pune – and not a farmer (As yet ) by profession – however i am eager to start a green house. I have a plot but its near panshet and one near velhe .. both are about 60-70 km from pune.
    do u think it makes sense to put up a greenhouse there ? or do u think the overall transportation and labor will make it non-sustainable ?

    • Hello Avadhut
      To become successful in greenhouse farming required close monitoring. if you are able to do this then go ahead and start greenhouse farming.

  • Hello,
    I am a school teacher and I want to construct a small green house in my school. My aim is to show the students the modern technique of farming and create in them a motivation towards farming. How should I go for it?

    • Hello Jitul sir,

      Thank for comment, and I really appreciate your thoughts toward the farming. You can contact Low-cost greenhouse or polytunnel in your school the cost comes to construct this type of greenhouse is very much low as compared to a commercial greenhouse. You can find a Low-cost greenhouse construction idea on youtube.

    • profitability depends upon various factor like a market, climatic condition, available resources so decide crop for polyhouse/greenhouse according to your preference
      Generally, this crop are more profitable in polyhouse/ greenhouse
      Dutch Rose
      colour Capsicum

  • Hi Amar,
    Please help in my query.
    What are the bank requirements for loan? Is it mandatory to have a collateral such as property. What if someone doesn’t want to use his property as mortgage.
    Is it possible to get loan on the basis of job salary, example (employee of MNC bank).
    Appreciate your guidance on this.

    • Thanks, Neeraj
      This depends upon BanK; some bank accepts Loan security on job salary or other property. Please discuss with bank loan manager they exact tell you what document and surety they want against a loan.

  • Hi Amar
    Great! Q&A section is very informative !!
    I am Krish.Saravanan from Dharmapuri, Tamil Nadu where in summer (April, May & June) temperature reaches up
    to 35-40 °C. Provided water is available throughout the year, would it be advisable to start green house farming in this area? Does higher temperature cause any effect to green house during summer? What type of green house is suitable this climate? What type of crops would be better / advisable this climate?

  • Dear sir I am from agra & we want to establish a poly house on 1 bigha land we r growing coloured capciusm so plz provide us about market of capciusm and status & marketing tips

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