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Crops

Gerbera Cultivation Guide

gerbera cultivation

Gerbera Cultivation process

Gerbera is an important commercial cut flower crop. Gerbera flowers have a wide range of colors, including yellow, orange, cream-white, pink, brick red, red color, terracotta, and various other intermediate colors. Sometimes in double varieties, bicolor flowers are beautiful; Gerbera flower stalks are long, thin, and leafy.

In Greenhouse Gerbera cultivated in Soil or Soilless media ( coco peat). Both have their own advantage & limitation.

  1. Gerbera cultivation cost increase in soilless media is around 30-30%.
  2. Production is higher in soilless media compare to soil media.
  3. Required very close monitoring.
  4. Soilless media is suitable for a large area of more than 2 Acre.
  5. In India, mostly soil media is preferred for gerbera cultivation due to electricity & irrigated water quality.

The major  Gerbera producing states in India are  Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat, Tamilnadu, West Bengal, and Himachal Pradesh.

Gerbera Cultivation Guide 1

1) Soil Structure Required for Gerbera Cultivation

Two primary factors are considered while selecting soil –

  1.  The soil pH must be between 5.5 to 6.5.
  2.  The soil salinity level does not exceed 1 ms/cm; For better root growth and better penetration of roots, the soil should be highly porous and well-drained.

Red lateritic soil ideal soil for Gerbera cultivation.
Therefore, as soon as you decide on the gerbera cultivation project site, you should analyze soil as early as.

Soil sterilization

Soil sterilization is required before the gerbera plantation. Fungus Phytophthora is very dangerous for the Gerbera crop.

There are three main  soil sterilization method available,

  1. Steam: Not practical for Indian conditions.
  2. Sun:  in this method plastic sheet is Cover in the soil for 6-8 weeks. The sunrise will heat the soil, and this will kill the most fungus.
  3. Chemical: this is the most advance & useful method. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with silver is used for sterilization of soil.

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with silver

Process:
  1. wet the beds with irrigation water.
  2. Mix water with hydrogen peroxide at a rate of 35 ml per/lite.

Apply this solution evenly on soil beds. Use one liter of mixed solution  ( Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with silver + water) For the one-meter area.  After that, in 4 to 6 hours, the crop can be planted.

Benefits of Hydrogen Peroxide with Silver:
  1. economical, reduce input cost
  2. Very easy and safe, this method does not affect any dangerous affect human health.
  3. The plantation can be carried out after 4 to 6 hours of fumigation.
  4. Eco-friendly and does not produce any phytotoxic effects on plants.
  5. Almost any fungi, bacteria, and viral presence in the soil destroys the eggs of larva and insects.
Where to buy Hydrogen Peroxide with Silver-

Kumaran Enterprise is the leading manufacturer of hydrogen peroxide with silver.
contact-  9845033066
www.oxipure.co.in 

gerbera farming

2) Bed preparation process  For Gerbera Cultivation

gerbera cultivation bed

Gerbera plant required well-drained soil, so they grow on raised beds; The dimensions of the bed should be as follows:

  • Bed height: 1.5 feet (45 cm)
  • Bed width: 2 feet (60 cm)
  • Between the beds: 1 foot (30 cm)

If the soil is black cotton, for better drainage,  gravel or murum (6 “layer) can be added, and the recommended quantity of soil along with biological composting  (FYM) is added.

FYM is Increasing soil texture and give nutrition gradually to the plant.

Neem cake (@ 1 kg / m) is add in Bed preparation because of the prevention of nematode disease.

All materials must be mixed well.

 

Bedding material structure:

 

gebera cultivation soil

Basal fertilizer supplements (after bed preparation):

Mix the upper 6 “soil layer well before planting the plants.

ChemicalAreaQuantity
Single Super Phosphate20m25000gm
Biozyme Granules20m2400gm
Humiguard Granules20m2400gm
Magnesium Sulphate20m21000gm

 

3) Planting

Before Gerbera Planting Selecting good gerbera variety is important also colour combination affect gerbera profit.
For marketing, purpose gerbera grower has the right colour combination in the box. We use this colour combination in our Greenhouse.

RED20%
YELLOW20%
PINK20%
ORANGE20%
WHITE20%

In India there is 5- 10 gerbera plant supplier nursery available, Expert gerbera grower selects only a particular variety to form each nursery.
Famous  Gerbera variety: Dune, Pre Intenzz, Intense, Winter Queen, Inferno, Cacharelle, Jaffa, Dana Ellen, Sangria, Diana, Imperial,  Thalsa, Sonsara, Balance, Paganini, Anneke, Nette, Rosaline, Rosetta, Gloria.

List of top Gerbera plant nursery suppliers

This is India’s top reliable gerbera plant provider company.

Transplanting

When transplanting Gerbera plants, the plant crown should be above 1 – 2 cm soil level without disturbing the root ball.

gerbera plant distance

Two rows are planted  on one bed, the distance between two rows is 37.5 cm and 30 centimeters between plants in one line, i.e.

  • Rows -Rows = 37.5 cm = 1.25  Ft
  • Plant – Plant = 30.0 cm = 1′ Ft

4) Fertilization

  1. Fertigation starts After three weeks on a plantation. Starter grade fertilizer gives For the first three months. Every alternate day Fertilizer dose provides to the plant.
  2. After 45-50days, the flower bud started to grow, the cut flower bud (disbudding operation) to complete growth of the plant when  16 to 18 fully developed leaves seen on plant stop flower bud cutting.
  3. After this,  give productive phase fertilizer. In this period, N: P: K2: 1: 4 (e.g., N: P: K 15: 8: 35) @ 0.4 g / Plants give each alternate day to increase volume and quality with EC 1.5 ms/cm.
  4. For optimum results, irrigation in small quantities and often fertilized.
  5. Micronutrients have been given according to the symptoms (e.g., Combi II, Microscope B, Rexolin, Sequel, and Mahabrexil @ 40 grams per 1000 liters of water).
  1. Analyze  soil every 2 to 3 months to decide the specially Nutritious schedule

5) Harvesting:

gerbera flower

After 30-45 days of gerbera, the plantation bud initially started, but the initial bud is of inferior quality. Hence this bud should be removed from the base of the flower stalk. This disbudding helps in making the plant strong and healthy. This operation was carried out up to 80 -85 days.

The first flowers are harvested after 12-14 weeks ( 85- 90 days ) after planting. When the stomach 2 – 3 Varlo is fully developing, Flowers are a harvest; It will decide the flower vase’s life.

The good gerbera flower has a stalk length is  45-55cm, and the diameter of the flower is 10 – 12cm.

Morning or evening is the best time for gerbera flower harvesting.

Skilled laborers are required for harvestings. Harvested flower kept in a bucket containing clean water. Flowers are very delicate; hence they should be carefully handled

One Garbera plant produces approximately 45 flowers per year.

6) Interculture Operation

Gerbera crop is the perennial crop to get maximum profit from gerbera cultivation. We have performed certain a task to maintain gerbera crop healthily.

Control Pest and Disease in Greenhouse
To control pest & disease, spray pesticides and fungicide &  Tonic on the specific time interval (every 2-3 days )

Weeding and  raking of soil:

Weeds compete for gerbera plants, take the nutrients, and affect the production. Hence, they should be removed. Due to daily irrigation, the gerbera bed surface becomes hard, and hence raking of soil is required. Raking increases soil aeration. Raking should be done twice a month.

Removal of old leaves:

The old, dry, infected leaves should be removed from the plant. It helps in keeping the disease and pest infestation below the economic threshold level.

Read more about the economics of Gerbera.

Disease & Pest

I) Disease

Powdery mildew:

Powdery mildew

Powdery mildew affects the photosynthesis process of the plant. On the upper leaf surface, a white powder is observed. powdery mildew is seen mostly in the winter season

Crown rot:

The crown of the plant turns black. crown rot is due to Phytophthora cryptogea

Root rot:

Due to root rot, plant drop younger leaves then dead. Root rot is Due to Pythium.

Fungal Complex:

Gerbera Plant become week & show stunted growth.

Alternaria leaf spots:

If moisture remains on the leaf’s surface for a long time, then  Black circular spots appear on the leaves.

Botrytis:

Botrytis occurs when the relative humidity of the air is more than 92 %. In botrytis Gray spot seen  on the flower

II) pest:

Whitefly:

Whiteflie on gerbera plant

Whitefly is a serious pest in the greenhouse, and you must control whitefly at the initial stage; then, it is difficult to control afterword.

The hot and dry climate is suitable for whitefly growth; whiteflies feed on the lower part of the leaves; a lot of honeydew secrete leads to the development of black Sufi mold on the leaves.

To identify whitefly in the greenhouse/ polyhouse, use yellow sticky traps.

Leaf Miner:

lleafminer gerbra cultivation

Leaf miner causes White robes on the leaves.  White spiral tunnel in leaves due to larvae, which remains in the soil

Red Mites:

Suck the juice from the lower side of the leaves, which develop brown spots on the leaves’ lower surface, resulting in the drying of the leaves in the margins. Webbing on flower petals

Cyclamen Mites:

Cyclamen mites cause on old leaves are curled up &  Young leaves in deformed in shape. Flowers petal’s quality & size will decrease.

Caterpillar:

It creates a spherical hole in the abdominal stomach by eating. In the case of floral attacks, it causes white spots on petals.

Thrips:

Thrips cause straps on a flower petal. Flower size and shape distorted. Silver-spotted patches on leaves

Snails / Slug:

snails/slug come to eat during the night hours, so snails/slug symptoms are on the leaves and flowers petals through circular feeding holes.

Nematodes:

Due to nematode, plant leaves become Yellow, so stunted growth of the plant. Dirty water in the rainy season, there are favorable conditions for the development and spread of nematodes

Mealybugs :

plant leaves become yellowish & distorted in size

Aphids:

aphids ejaculate some substance on which fungus develops; it is harmful to the gerbera plant.

8) Gerbera Flower Marketing

Gerbera flower demand is high in the marriage season, mostly in January, February, May, August, November & December.

Hyderabad, Mumbai, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Kolkata, Pune, Banglore are the major markets for the Gerbera flower.

top flower market in india

 

About the author

amar sawant

amar sawant

Amar Sawant is a Hi-tech farmer, professional Greenhouse consultant, and trainer. He works for more than nine years as an agri-entrepreneur.

17 Comments

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  • Hello Sir,
    I am Shridhar from Kolhapur and want to start a polyhouse (1000 m2) for Gerbera cultivation. I applied for the subsidy but due to high compitation I was unable to get it .Still I want to start it. Whether it will be right decision? Because I am investing near about 12lakhs. Is there any better option (other than polyhouse) that I can start utilizing same investment.

    • Hello Shridhar,
      if you are very passionate to start greenhouse then start greenhouse farming. there is various agribusiness option available in front of you like mushroom farming, poultry, goat farming.

  • Hello Sir
    I am belonging from RATNAGIRI & I want to start Jarbera flower business . Ratnagiri atmosphere suitable for that ?

  • Hi Amar,

    I am from Pandharpur would like to get in touch with you in regards of Gerbera cultivation project , it would be great if you consult me as i am looking forward to start this as soon as possible

    Thank you !

    • Hello Omkar,

      Join our Greenhouse / polyhouse Training cum consultancy program you get complete information on how to start greenhouse farming to marketing. please contact on 8788462787 for more detail about Greenhouse/polyhouse training cum consultancy program.

  • Hello Amar

    I belong to Uttar Pradesh Varanasi Mirzapur Ganga belt Area called Chunar (famous historical place and fort on bank of Ganga)
    I m having good enough crop field thinking to start flori work by having green house projects for gerbera flower production.
    Can you suggest if soil of this Ganga area is suitable for gerbera . As much I know the soil called Domat soil
    If gerbera is not suitable so which commercial flower is suitable for this belt.
    We use to grow crops like wheat sugercane peas all vegetables like chilli , tomato pumpkins gram groundnut and others .
    Only this area is suitable for rice crop.
    So soil is very fertile and water level is 80 feet
    Please suggest

  • Hi Sir,

    I need information about the Thrips:and Red Mites and Caterpillar and Whitefly: for 1 Acre . Good fertilizers name needed

    My farm near Doddabalpur Near Bangalore

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