Gerbera Cultivation process
Gerbera is important commercial cut flower crop, and Gerbera flowers have a wide range of colors including yellow, orange, cream-white, pink, brick red, red color, terracotta and various other intermediate colors. Sometimes in double varieties, bicolor flowers are beautiful; Gerbera flower stalks are long, thin and leafy.
In Greenhouse Gerbera cultivated in Soil or Soilless media ( coco peat). both have own advantage & disadvantage
- Gerbera cultivation cost increase in soilless media is around 20-30%.
- Production is higher in soilless media compare to soil media.
- Required very close monitoring.
- Soilless media is suitable for the large area more than 2 Acre.
- In India mostly soil media preferred for gerbera cultivation due to electricity & irrigated water quality.
The major Gerbera producing states in India are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat, Tamilnadu, West Bengal and Himachal Pradesh.
1) Soil Structure Required for Gerbera Cultivation
There are two primary factors are considered while selecting soil –
- The soil pH must be between 5.5 to 6.5.
- The soil salinity level does not exceed 1 ms/cm; For better root growth and better penetration of roots, the soil should be highly porous and well drained.
Red lateritic soil ideal soil for Gerbera cultivation.
Therefore, as soon as you decide gerbera cultivation project site, you should analyze soil as early as.
Soil sterilization is required before gerbera plantation. Fungus Phytophthora is very dangerous for Gerbera crop.
There are three main soil sterilization method available,
- Steam: Not practical for Indian conditions.
- Sun: in this method plastic sheet is Cover on the soil for 6-8 weeks. The sunrise will heat the soil, and this will kill the most fungus.
- Chemical: this is most advance & useful method. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with silver is used for sterilization of soil.
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with silver
- wet the beds with irrigation water.
- Mix water with hydrogen peroxide at a rate of 35 ml per/lite.
Apply this solution evenly on soil beds. Use one liter of mix solution ( Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with silver + water) For the one-meter area. After that in 4 to 6 hours the crop can be planted.
Benefits of Hydrogen Peroxide with Silver:
- economical, reduce input cost
- Very easy and safe this method does not affect any dangerous effect human health.
- The plantation can be carried out after 4 to 6 hours fumigation.
- Eco-friendly and does not produce any phytotoxic effects on plants.
- Almost any fungi, bacteria and viral presence in the soil destroys the eggs of larva and insects.
2) Bed preparation process For Gerbera Cultivation
Gerbera plant required well-drained soil, so they grow on raised beds; The dimensions of the bed should be as follows:
- Bed height: 1.5 feet (45 cm)
- Bed width: 2 feet (60 cm)
- Between the beds: 1 feet (30 cm)
If the soil is black cotton, for better drainage, gravel or murum (6 “layer) can be added and recommended quantity of soil along with biological composting (FYM) is added.
FYM is Increasing soil texture and give nutrition gradually to the plant.
Neem cake (@ 1 kg / m) is add in Bed preparation because of the prevention of nematode disease.
All materials must be mixed well.
Bedding material structure:
Basal fertilizer supplements (after bed preparation):
Mix the upper 6 “soil layer well, before planting the plants.
|Single Super Phosphate||20m2||5000gm|
Before Gerbera Planting Selecting good gerbera variety is important also colour combination affect gerbera profit.
For marketing, purpose gerbera grower has a right colour combination in the box. We use this colour combination in our Greenhouse.
In India there is 5- 10 gerbera plant supplier nursery available, Expert gerbera grower select an only particular variety to form each nursery.
Famous Gerbera varity : Dune ,Pre Intenzz, Intense, Winter Queen, Inferno, Cacharelle, Jaffa, Dana Ellen, Sangria, Diana, Imperial, Thalsa, Sonsara, Balance, Paganini, Anneke, Nette, Rosaline, Rosetta, Gloria.
List of top Gerbera plant nursery suppliers
This are India’s top reliable gerbera plant provider companies
When transplanting Gerbera plants, plant crown should be above 1 – 2 cm soil level without disturbing the root ball.
Two rows are planted on one bed, the distance between two rows is 37.5 cm and 30 centimeters between plants in one line, i.e.
- Rows -Rows = 37.5 cm = 1.25 Ft
- Plant – Plant = 30.0 cm = 1′ Ft
- Fertigation starts After three weeks of a plantation. starter grade fertilizer gives For first three months. Every alternate day Fertilizer dose provides to the plant.
- After 45-50days, flower bud started to grow, the cut flower bud (disbudding operation) to complete growth of the plant when 16 to 18 fully developed leaves seen on plant stop flower bud cutting.
- After this, give productive phase fertilizer. In this period, N: P: K2: 1: 4 (e.g., N: P: K 15: 8: 35) @ 0.4 g / Plants give each alternate day to increase volume and quality with EC 1.5 ms/cm.
- For optimum results, irrigation in small quantities and often fertilized.
- Micronutrients have given according to the symptoms of (e.g., Combi II, Microscope B, Rexolin, Sequel and Mahabrexil @ 40 grams per 1000 liters of water).
- Analyze soil on every 2 to 3 months to decide the specially Nutritious schedule
After 30-45 days of gerbera, plantation bud initial started, but the initial bud is inferior quality. Hence this bud should be removed from the base of the flowers stalk. This disbudding helps in making the plant strong and healthy. This operation carried out up to 80 -85 days.
The first flowers harvested after 12-14 week ( 85- 90 days ) after planting. When the stomach 2 – 3 Varlo is fully developing then Flowers are a harvest; It will decide the life of flower vase.
The good gerbera flower has stalk length is 45-55cm, and diameter of the flower is 10 – 12cm.
Morning or evening is the best time for gerbera flower harvesting.
Skilled labors are required for harvestings. Harvested flower kept in a bucket containing clean water. Flowers are very delicate hence they should be carefully handled
One Garbera plant produces approximately 45 flowers per year.
6) Safe work practices
Gerbera crop is the perennial crop to get maximum profit form gerbera cultivation. We have performed certain a task to maintain gerbera crop healthily.
Control Pest and Disease in Greenhouse
To control pest & disease spray pesticides and fungicide & Tonic on the specific time interval (every 2-3 days )
Weeding and raking of soil:
Weeds compete for gerbera plant, take the nutrients and affect the production. Hence, they should be removed. Due to daily irrigation, the gerbera bed surface becomes hard and hence raking of soil is required. Raking increases soil aeration. Raking should be done twice in a month.
Removal of old leaves:
The old, dry, infested leaves should be removed from the plant it helps in keeping the disease and pest infestation below the economic threshold level.
Read more about the economics of Gerbera
Disease & Pest
Powdery mildew affects photosynthesis process of the plant. On the upper leaf surface, a white powder is observed. powdery mildew is seen mostly in the winter season
The crown of the plant turns black. crown rot is due to Phytophthora cryptogea
Due to root rot plant drop younger leaves then dead. Root rot is Due to Pythium.
Gerbera Plant become week & show stunted growth.
Alternaria leaf spots:
If moisture remains on the surface of the leaf for a long time, then Black circular spots appear on the leaves.
Botrytis occurs when the relative humidity of the air is more than 92 %. In botrytis Gray spot seen on the flower
Whitefly is a serious pest in the greenhouse, and you must control whitefly at initial stage then it is difficult to control afterword.
The hot and dry climate is suitable for whitefly growth, whitefly feeds on the lower part of the leaves; a lot of honeydew secrete which leads to the development of black Sufi mold on the leaves.
For identify whitefly in greenhouse/ polyhouse use yellow sticky traps.
Leaf miner causes White robes on the leaves. White spiral tunnel in leaves due to larvae, which remains in the soil
Suck the juice from the lower side of the leaves, which develop brown spots on the lower surface of the leaves, resulting in the drying of the leaves in the margins. Webbing on flower petals
Cyclamen mites cause on old leaves are curled up & Young leaves in deformed in shape. Flowers petals quality & size will decrease
Creates a spherical hole in the abdominal stomach by eating. In the case of floral attacks, it causes white spots on petals.
Thrips cause straps on a flower petal. Flower size and shape distorted. Silver-spotted patches on leaves
Snails / Slug:
snails/slug come to eat during the night hours, so the symptom of snails/slug is on the leaves and flowers petals through circular feeding holes.
Due to nematode plant leaves become Yellow so stunted growth of the plant. Dirty water in the rainy season, there are favorable conditions for the development and spread of nematodes.
plant leaves become yellowish & distorted in size
aphids ejaculate some substance on which fungus develop it is harmful to gerbera plant.
8) Gerbera Flower Marketing
Gerbera flower demand is high in the marriage season mostly in January, February, May, August, November & December.
Hydrabad, mumbai, Delhi, Ahmedabad ,kolkata, pune, Banglore are major market for Gebera flower.