Capsicum cultivation Process
Capsicum is an important commercial vegetable crop, also known as sweet pepper, bell pepper or Shimla Mirch. this plants grown throughout the world.
This crop is a cold season crop, but capsicum cultivated through the year using polyhouse.
Capsicum is a rich source of vitamin A, vitamin C and mineral calcium (13.4 mg), magnesium (14.9 mg) of phosphorus (28.3 mg) of potassium (263.7 mg) per 100 grams of fresh capsicum fruit weight.
Soil texture required for capsicum cultivation
Selection of soil is an important decision. soil selection for capsicum cultivation following point should be considered:
- The pH of the soil should be between 6.0 to 6.5
- The salinity level of the soil should not be more than 1 ms/cm, Therefore, as soon as you select the site, analyze the soil for further improvement.
- The soil should be highly porous and should be well drained so that the roots can be improved and the better penetration of the roots.
Bed preparation for capsicum cultivation
- Height: 1 foot (30 centimeters)
- width: 3 feet (90 centimeters)
- Between beds: 2 feet (60 centimeters)
Capsicum Cultivation Transplanting
Plant transplant in soil without disturbing the root ball. two rows planted on a single bed
- plant to plant distance 45 to 50 cm
- row to row distance 50 cm
After plantation, maintain moisture 80-90% For the protection of plants, from 2 to 3 weeks.
Capsicum cultivation Pruning
Capsicum plants are cut to maintain four stems. The tip of the plant is divided into two on the 5 or 6 nodes and left to grow. These two branches have again increased in two branches.
The tip on each node is divided by giving a strong branch and one weak branch. Pruning is done after 30 days at an interval of 8 to 10 days, resulting in bigger fruits with better quality and higher productivity.
Capsicum plants can also be harvested for two stems, and the same level of yield can be maintained.
To reduce the pH of water, add the acid in the water tank, then use water for irrigation and sprinkling.
- Immediately after plantation, irrigation required to start the first shower is required to use after some days drip irrigation use this will help for uniform root development of a plant,
- Usually, a dripper per plant is required. Depending on the season, drip irrigation is given to provide 2-4 liters of water per square meter. In hot summer, a fogger can be used to maintain the air humidity.
- Inspect the soil column for irrigation and visually check the soil moisture content. After this, determine the amount of irrigation required
- During the summer season, apply water to the edges of the bed repeatedly by using the shower to reduce the loss of evaporator. For this purpose, provision for water outlet (1 “diameter pipe) inside the Greenhouse should be made.
- Always pour the plant water from noon.
- Relative humidity of air should not be more than 90 – 92 percent because it is inclined to disturb the fruit.
- Always use fresh water for irrigation. Do not store water for 4 to 5 days.
Fertigation for capsicum cultivation
- fertigation is applicable after three weeks of vegetation phase N: P: K: 1: 1: 1 (e.g., 19: 19: 19 ) at 0.4 g During the vegetation phase, preferably for every 45-60 alternate days with for better leaves
- after 60 days start, N: P: K 2: 1: 4 (e.g., N: P: k: 15: 8: 35) at 0.4 g / 2.2 ms/cm more flower and better fruit quality with each alternate day EC.
- Fertilization and yield often in small quantities for optimal results. However, always take care to meet the crop requirement.
- Micronutrients (e.g., combi II, Microscope B, Rexolin, Sequel and Mahabrexil @ 40 gram per 1000 liters of water) should be given daily or weekly according to the symptoms.
- To maintain proper C: N ratio, add organic manure with EC with less than 2 ms/cm at every three months interval.
- Determine the expansion of soil every two to three months to determine specific plants.
Method of Giving Fertigation:
Fertigation should be given at 6-8 AM in the morning for better use of plants. Collect the recommended amount of fertilizers and dissolve them the sufficient volume of water.
If the pH of plain water is used then on the higher side, then using acids, make it 6 to 6.5. It should be added to water at least 12 hours before using it.
Fertilizers are required to maintain EC’s EC with the recommended amount of water. Therefore, operate the drip system for the prescribed period. After every seven days, Open Flash valves clean the fertigation system from time to time.
Harvesting of Capsicum
Harvesting of capsicum fruit start after 80-90 days from transplanting; best time for harvesting is in the morning. Fruits can be cut once in 3 to 4 days. Yellow and red fruits can be harvested when they receive 50-80 percent of the color development.
Disease/ pest in capsicum
nymph and adult suck sap from the plant leaves, resulting in the decreased yield and plant growth.
Thrips cause upper curling of leaves, sucks, and sap from leaf due to which The decrease in the size of the foliage, fruits, and plants, production of fruits reduce and reduce the market value of production.
Due to excessive sucking damage (plant juice) and transmitting many viruses.
Fruit borers are very active during the night. They damage fruit & decrease the quality of production.
Stunted growth, Yellowing of leaves, is due to Root-knot nematode.Muddy water During the rainy season is favorable for nematode growth.
The transition occurs from the young plants above the ground level, which leads to disease of seeds and later to die. Planting may occur due to any damage during transplantation.
The disease initially appears on the surface of the leaves as yellowish brown spots and powder-like material on the lower surface, thereby increasing the powder, which covers the entire surface of the lower surface, which can be dried and dried in later stages drop-offs. This disease reduces the development of leaves and fruits, thereby reducing the quality and quality of production.
cercospora leaf place
Elegantly appears on the surface of the leaves as a yellowish yellow color, which contains sharp dark brown spots, which spread on the entire leaf, resulting in leaves falling.
During flowering and fruiting, phase Diseases is seen.
aphids and thrips transmit Viral diseases.
Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV):
Transmission through Aphids due to which Loss of production, low-quality products.
Potato Y Virus (PYV)
Transfer through Aphids due to which leads to the production and quality products.
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)
Transmission via thrips, Damage: Fruit loss of plant and low production.
Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)
Mechanically infected virus (hand, cloth, device water, soil, etc.)
reduce production, quality of product decrease.
Capsicum Cultivation Economic:
Capsicum Cultivation Economic in 2008 sq/ meter (20 gunta).
|Area of Polyhouse||2008 square/meter|
|Polyhouse Construction||Polyhous as per NHB norms,|
GI pipe structure & imported
plastic @ Rs. 750 / per Sq. mtr.
|Irrigation System||Drip Irrigation system for plants|
Fertigation unit, Water
|Bed Preparation||Bed prepared|
with Red Soil, Rice Husk,
FYM, Sand, etc.
Total No. of Plants:
Cost per Plant:
|cost of cultivation per year|
|Water requirement||Approximate per year||50,000|
|Fertilizers||Water Soluble Fertilizers||60,000|
|Labour||3- 4 labours per day||250,000|
|Returns Per Year|
|Yield / Plant / Year||4 kg||30,120|
|Price per Kg||avg price 45 Rs|
|Total Returns||Per Year||1,355,400|
|Cost of Cultivation||Per Year||858,800|
|Net Return||Per Year||496,600|
Disclaimer: (The above calculations are indicative only.)